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All Things Hummingbird.
Information and pictures on Hummingbirds.
Educational, Zoological, and Classification info.

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Index

Hummingbirds are small birds in the family Trochilidae, native only to the Americas. They are known for their ability to hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings, 15-80 times per second (depending on the species). Capable of sustained hovering, the hummingbird has the ability to fly deliberately backwards (this is the only group of birds able to do so) or vertically, and to maintain position while drinking nectar or eating tiny arthropods from flower blossoms. They are named for the characteristic hum made by their wings.

Appearance Hummingbirds
The hummingbird is a small bird with a long, thin beak. This elongated beak is one of the defining characteristics of the hummingbird, which, with an extendable, bifurcated tongue, has evolved in order to allow the bird to feed upon nectar deep within flowers. A hummingbird's lower beak also has the unique ability to flex downward to create a wider opening, facilitating the capture of insects in the mouth rather than at the tip of the beak.

The Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is the smallest bird in the world, weighing 1.8 grams (0.06 ounces) and measuring about 5 cm (2 inches). A more typical hummingbird, such as the Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), weighs approximately 3 g (0.106 ounces) and has a length of 10-12 cm (3.5-4 inches). The largest hummingbird is the Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas), with some individuals weighing as much as 24 grams (0.85 ounces) and measuring 21.5 cm (8.5 inches).

Hummingbirds bear the most glittering plumage in the bird world. They display sexual dimorphism, as male hummingbirds are usually more brightly colored, while females of most species display more cryptic coloration. Most males have iridescent plumage, in metallic red, orange, green and/or blue. Some have only an iridescent throat patch or cap, while others, such as the Coppery-headed Emerald, are entirely iridescent.

Feeding
Hummingbirds are attracted to many flowering plants—shrimp plants, bee balm, Heliconia, Buddleja, Hibiscus, bromeliads, cannas, verbenas, honeysuckles, salvias, pentas, fuchsias, many penstemons,Hummingbirds and others. It is often stated that they are especially attracted to red and yellow flowers. Once attracted to a garden, hummingbirds may find flowers of other colors more attractive. The location and growing season should determine choices of the plants selected for a garden to attract hummingbirds. They feed on the nectar of these plants and are important pollinators, especially of deep-throated flowers. Most species of hummingbird also take insects, especially when feeding young.

Aerodynamics of flight
Hummingbird flight has been studied intensively from an aerodynamic perspective: Hovering hummingbirds may be filmed using high-speed video cameras.

Writing in Nature, the bio-mechanist Douglas Warrick and coworkers studied the Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus, in a wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry techniques and investigated the lift generated on the bird's upstroke and down stroke.

They concluded that their subjects produced 75% of their weight support during the down-stroke and 25% during the up-stroke: many earlier studies had assumed (implicitly or explicitly) that lift was generated equally during the two phases of the wing beat cycle, as is the case of insects of a similar size. This finding shows that hummingbirds' hovering is similar to, but distinct from, that of hovering insects such as the hawk moths.

The Giant Hummingbird's wings beat 8-10 beats per second, the wings of medium-sized hummingbirds beat about 20-25 beats per second and the smallest beat 70 beats per second.

Metabolism
With the exception of insects, hummingbirds while in flight have the highest metabolism of all animals, a necessity in order to support the rapid beating of their wings. Their heart rate can reach as high as 1,260 beats per minute, a rate once measured in a Blue-throated Hummingbird . They also typically consume more than their own weight in food each day, and to do so they must visit hundreds of flowers daily. At any given moment, they are only hours away from starving.

However, they are capable of slowing down their metabolism at night, or any other time food is not readily available. They enter a hibernation-like state known as torpor. During torpor, the heart rate and rate of breathing are both slowed dramatically (the heart rate to roughly 50-180 beats per minute), reducing their need for food. Most organisms with very rapid metabolism have short life spans, however hummingbirds have been known to survive in captivity for as long as 17 years.

Studies of hummingbirds' metabolism are highly relevant to the question of whether a migrating Ruby-throated Hummingbird can cross 800 km (500 miles) of the Gulf of Mexico on a nonstop flight, as field observations suggest it does. This hummingbird, like other birds preparing to migrate, stores up fat to serve as fuel, thereby augmenting its weight by as much as 40-50 percent and hence increasing the bird's potential flying time.

RangeHummingbirds
Hummingbirds are found only in the Americas, from southern Alaska and Canada to Tierra del Fuego, including the Caribbean. The majority of species occur in tropical Central and South America, but several species also breed in temperate areas. Excluding vagrants, sometimes from Cuba or the Bahamas, only the migratory Ruby-throated Hummingbird breeds in eastern North America. The Black-chinned Hummingbird, its close relative and another migrant, is the most widespread and common species in the western United States and Canada.

Most hummingbirds of the U.S. and Canada migrate to warmer climates in the northern winter, but some remain in the warmest coastal regions. Some southern South American forms also move to the tropics in the southern winter.

The Rufous Hummingbird shows an increasing trend to migrate east to winter in the eastern United States, rather than south to Central America, as a result of increasing survival prospects provided by artificial feeders in gardens. In the past, individuals that migrated east would usually die, but now many survive, and their changed migration direction is inherited by their offspring. Provided sufficient food and shelter is available, they are surprisingly hardy, able to tolerate temperatures down to at least -4 °C (25 °F).

Reproduction
Most male hummingbirds take no part in nesting. Most species make a neatly woven cup in a tree branch. Two white eggs are laid, which despite being the smallest of all bird eggs, are in fact large relative to the hummingbird's adult size. Incubation is typically 14-19 days. The nest is usually about the size of a pocket watch.

Systematics and evolution
Traditionally, hummingbirds are placed in the order Apodiformes, which also contains the swifts. In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, hummingbirds are separated as a new order, Trochiliformes, but this is not well supported by additional evidence. Hummingbirds' wings are hollow and fragile, making fossilization difficult and leaving their evolutionary history a mystery. Some scientists also believe that the hummingbird evolved relatively recently. Scientists also theorize that hummingbirds originated in South America, where there is the greatest species diversity. Brazil and Ecuador contain over half of the known species.

There are between 325 and 340 species of hummingbird, depending on taxonomic viewpoint, historically divided into two subfamilies, the hermits (subfamily Phaethornithinae, 34 species in six genera), and the typical hummingbirds (subfamily Trochilinae, all the others).

The modern diversity of hummingbirds is thought by evolutionary biologists to have evolved in South America, as the great majority of the species are found there. However, the ancestor of extant hummingbirds may have lived in parts of Europe to what is southern Russia today.

Genetic analysis has indicated that the hummingbird lineage diverged from their closest relatives some 35 million years ago, in the Late Eocene, but fossil evidence is limited. Fossil hummingbirds are known from the Pleistocene of Brazil and the Bahamas, though neither has yet been scientifically described and there are fossils and sub fossils of a few extant species known, but until recently, older fossils had not been securely identifiable as hummingbirds.

In 2004, Dr. Gerald Mayr of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Hummingbirds Main identified two 30-million-year-old hummingbird fossils and published his results in Nature. The fossils of this primitive hummingbird species, named Eurotrochilus inexpectatus ("unexpected European hummingbird"), had been sitting in a museum drawer in Stuttgart; they had been unearthed in a clay pit at Wiesloch-Frauenweiler, south of Heidelberg, Germany and, because it was assumed that hummingbirds never occurred outside the Americas, were not recognized to be hummingbirds until Mayr took a closer look at them.

Fossils of birds not clearly assignable to either hummingbirds or a related, extinct family, the Jungornithidae, have been found at the Messel pit and in the Caucasus, dating from 40-35 mya, indicating that the split between these two lineages indeed occurred at that date. The areas where these early fossils have been found had a climate quite similar to the northern Caribbean or southernmost China during that time. The biggest remaining mystery at the present time is what happened to hummingbirds in the roughly 25 million years between the primitive Eurotrochilus and the modern fossils. The astounding morphological adaptations, the decrease in size, and the dispersal to the Americas and extinction in Eurasia all occurred during this time span. DNA-DNA hybridization results suggest that the main radiation of South American hummingbirds at least partly took place in the Miocene, some 12-13 mya, during the uplifting of the northern Andes.

Hummingbirds and humans
Hummingbirds sometimes fly into garages and become trapped. It is widely believed that this is because they mistake the hanging (usually red-color) door-release handle for a flower, although hummingbirds can also get trapped in enclosures that do not contain anything red. Once inside, they may be unable to escape because their natural instinct when threatened or trapped is to fly upward. This is a life-threatening situation for hummingbirds, as they can become exhausted and die in a relatively short period of time, possibly as little as an hour. If a trapped hummingbird is within reach, it can often be caught gently and released outdoors. It will lie quietly in the space between cupped hands until released. Alternatively, a hummingbird will land on a soft-bristled broom if held up to the bird and thence the bird may be carried outside to fly away safely.

Feeders and artificial nectar
The diet of hummingbirds requires an energy source (typically nectar) and a protein source (typically small insects). Providing many plants that carry blooms used by hummingbirds is the safest way to provide nectar for hummingbirds. Through careful plant selection, gardens may contain plants that bloom at different times to attract hummingbirds throughout the seasons they are present in an area. Placing these plants near windows affords a good view of the birds. Hummingbirds will also take synthetic nectar from artificial feeders. Such feeders allow people to observe and enjoy hummingbirds up-close while providing the hummingbirds with a reliable supply of nectar, especially when flower blossoms are less abundant. Maintaining cleanliness of the feeder is essential for the health of the birds. Homemade nectar can be made from 1 part white, granulated table sugar to 4 parts water, boiled to make it easier to dissolve the sugar and to purify the solution so that it will stay fresh longer. The cooled nectar is then poured into the feeder.

Things to avoid using in feeders include honey, which should not be used because it is prone to culture bacteria dangerous to hummingbirds. Artificial sweeteners should also be avoided because, although the hummingbirds will drink it, they will be starved of the calories they need to sustain their metabolism. Some commercial hummingbird foods contain red dyes and preservatives, which are unnecessary and possibly dangerous to the birds, so dyes and preservatives should be avoided because neither have been studied for long-term effects on hummingbirds. While it is true that bright colors, especially red, initially attract hummingbirds more quickly than others, it is better to use a feeder that has some red on it, rather than coloring the liquid offered in it. It is possible that red dye is harmful to hummingbirds. Commercial nectar mixes may contain small amounts of mineral nutrients which are useful to hummingbirds, but hummingbirds get all the nutrients they need from the insects they eat, not from nectar, so the added nutrients also are unnecessary. Authorities on hummingbirds recommend that if you use a feeder, use just plain sugar and water.

A hummingbird feeder should be easy to refill and keep clean. Prepared nectar can be refrigerated for 1-2 weeks before being used, but once placed outdoors it will only remain fresh for 2-4 days in hot weather, or 4-6 days in moderate weather, before turning cloudy or developing mold. If the feeder is in a shady area the nectar will last longer without spoiling. When changing the nectar, the feeder should be rinsed thoroughly with warm tap water, flushing the reservoir and ports to remove any contamination or sugar build-up. If dish soap is used, it always needs extra rinsing so that no residue is left behind. The feeder can be soaked in dilute chlorine bleach if black specks of mold appear and rinsed with clear water.

Other animals are also attracted to hummingbird feeders. It is a good idea to get a feeder that has very narrow ports, or ports with mesh-like "wasp guards", to prevent bees and wasps from getting inside where they get trapped. Orioles, woodpeckers, banaquits, and other animals are known to drink from hummingbird feeders, sometimes tipping them and draining the liquid. If this becomes a problem, it is possible to buy feeders which are specifically designed to support their extra weight and which hummingbirds will use too. If ants find your hummingbird feeder, one solution is to install an "ant moat", which is available at specialty garden stores and online, or tanglefoot can be used to trap the ants, provided it is applied in a location totally inaccessible to the hummingbirds. You can also place Vaseline on the pole that holds the feeder to trap ants on the path that they create.

Sometimes a large hummingbird drives its smaller brethren away from a feeder. An effective solution is to put out a second feeder that contains a slightly lower sugar concentration. Hummingbirds can detect a feeding source that is denser in sugar by only a few percent, and the more aggressive bird will make that feeder its own. The smaller birds will flock to the remaining feeder.

Scientific classification

  • Kingdom:   Animalia
  • Phylum:      Chordata
  • Class:        Aves
  • Order:        Apodiformes
  • Family:      Trochilidae: Vigors, 1825

Subfamilies

  • Phaethornithinae
  • Trochilinae

Complete list of hummingbirds in alphabetical order and common or binomial name.

     Name                 --         Binomial
Allen's Hummingbird -- Selasphorus sasin
Amazilia Hummingbird  -- Amazilia amazilia
Amethyst Woodstar  -- Calliphlox amethystina
Amethyst-throated Hummingbird  -- Lampornis amethystinus
Amethyst-throated Sunangel  -- Heliangelus amethysticollis
Andean Emerald  -- Agyrtria franciae
Andean Hillstar  -- Oreotrochilus estella
Anna's Hummingbird --  Calypte anna
Antillean Crested Hummingbird  -- Orthorhyncus cristatus
Antillean Mango --  Anthracothorax dominicus
Azure-crowned Hummingbird  -- Agyrtria cyanocephala
Bahama Woodstar  -- Calliphlox evelynae
Band-tailed Barbthroat  -- Threnetes ruckeri
Bearded Helmetcrest  -- Oxypogon guerinii
Bearded Mountaineer  -- Oreonympha nobilis
Beautiful Hummingbird  -- Calothorax pulcher
Bee Hummingbird --  Mellisuga helenae
Berylline Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia beryllina
Black Inca --  Coeligena prunellei
Black Jacobin  -- Florisuga fuscus
Black Metaltail --  Metallura phoebe
Black-backed Thornbill  -- Ramphomicron dorsale
Black-bellied Hummingbird  -- Eupherusa nigriventris
Black-bellied Thorntail  -- Popelairia langsdorffi
Black-billed Streamertail  -- Trochilus scitulus
Black-breasted Hillstar --  Oreotrochilus melanogaster
Black-breasted Puffleg --  Eriocnemis nigrivestis
Black-chinned Hummingbird  -- Archilochus alexandri
Black-crested Coquette  -- Lophornis helenae
Black-eared Fairy --  Heliothryx aurita
Black-hooded Sunbeam  -- Aglaeactis pamela
Black-tailed Trainbearer --  Lesbia victoriae
Black-thighed Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis derbyi
Black-throated Brilliant  -- Heliodoxa schreibersii
Black-throated Hermit  -- Phaethornis atrimentalis
Black-throated Mango  -- Anthracothorax nigricollis
Blossomcrown --  Anthocephala floriceps
Blue-capped Hummingbird  -- Eupherusa cyanophrys
Blue-capped Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis glaucopoides
Blue-chested Hummingbird  -- Polyerata amabilis
Blue-chinned Sapphire  -- Chlorostilbon notatus
Blue-fronted Lancebill  -- Doryfera johannae
Blue-headed Hummingbird  -- Cyanophaia bicolor
Blue-headed Sapphire  -- Hylocharis grayi
Blue-mantled Thornbill --  Chalcostigma stanleyi
Blue-tailed Emerald --  Chlorostilbon mellisugus
Blue-tailed Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia cyanura
Blue-throated Goldentail  -- Hylocharis eliciae
Blue-throated Hummingbird  -- Lampornis clemenciae
Blue-throated Starfrontlet  -- Coeligena helianthea
Blue-tufted Starthroat -  Heliomaster furcifer
Booted Racket-tail  -- Ocreatus underwoodii
Brazilian Ruby  -- Clytolaema rubricauda
Broad-billed Hummingbird --  Cynanthus latirostris
Broad-tailed Hummingbird  -- Selasphorus platycercus
Broad-tipped Hermit  -- Anopetia gounellei
Bronze-tailed Comet  -- Polyonymus caroli
Bronze-tailed Barbthroat  -- Threnetes (niger) loehkeni
Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer  -- Chalybura urochrysia
Bronze-tailed Thornbill  -- Chalcostigma heteropogon
Bronzy Hermit  -- Glaucis aenea
Bronzy Inca --  Coeligena coeligena
Brown Inca  -- Coeligena wilsoni
Brown Violet-ear --  Colibri delphinae
Buff-bellied Hermit  -- Phaethornis subochraceus
Buff-bellied Hummingbird  -- Amazilia yucatanensis
Buff-breasted Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus duidae
Buff-tailed Coronet  -- Boissonneaua flavescens
Buff-tailed Sicklebill  -- Eutoxeres condamini
Buff-thighed Puffleg  -- Haplophaedia assimilis
Buff-winged Starfrontlet  -- Coeligena lutetiae
Buffy Hummingbird  -- Leucippus fallax
Bumblebee Hummingbird  -- Atthis heloisa
Calliope Hummingbird  -- Stellula calliope
Canivet's Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon canivetii
Charming Hummingbird  -- Polyerata decora
Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird  -- Amazilia castaneiventris
Chestnut-breasted Coronet  -- Boissonneaua matthewsii
Chilean Woodstar --  Eulidia yarrellii
Chimborazo Hillstar  -- Oreotrochilus chimborazo
Chiribiquete Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon olivaresi
Cinnamon Hummingbird  -- Amazilia rutila
Cinnamon-throated Hermit --  Phaethornis nattereri
Collared Inca  -- Coeligena torquata
Colorful Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis mirabilis
Copper-rumped Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia tobaci
Copper-tailed Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia cupreicauda
Coppery Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon russatus
Coppery Metaltail --  Metallura theresiae
Coppery Thorntail  -- Popelairia letitiae
Coppery-bellied Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis cupreoventris
Coppery-headed Emerald  -- Elvira cupreiceps
Coppery-naped Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis sapphiropygia
Costa's Hummingbird  -- Calypte costae
Cozumel Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon forficatus
Crimson Topaz  -- Topaza pella
Cuban Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon ricordii
Dot-eared Coquette  -- Lophornis gouldii
Dusky Hummingbird  -- Cynanthus sordidus
Dusky-throated Hermit  -- Phaethornis squalidus
Ecuadorian Piedtail  -- Phlogophilus hemileucurus
Emerald-bellied Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis alinae
Emerald-chinned Hummingbird  -- Abeillia abeillei
Empress Brilliant  -- Heliodoxa imperatrix
Esmeraldas Woodstar --  Chaetocercus berlepschi
Fawn-breasted Brilliant  -- Heliodoxa rubinoides
Festive Coquette -  Lophornis chalybeus
Fiery Topaz  -- Topaza pyra
Fiery-tailed Awlbill  -- Avocettula recurvirostris
Fiery-throated Hummingbird -  Panterpe insignis
Fire-throated Metaltail  -- Metallura eupogon
Fork-tailed Woodnymph  -- Thalurania furcata
Frilled Coquette  -- Lophornis magnificus
Garden Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon assimilis
Garnet-throated Hummingbird  -- Lamprolaima rhami
Giant Hummingbird  -- Patagona gigas
Gilded Sapphire --  Hylocharis chrysura
Glittering-bellied Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon aureoventris
Glittering-throated Emerald  -- Polyerata fimbriata
Glowing Puffleg -  Eriocnemis vestitus
Glow-throated Hummingbird  -- Selasphorus ardens
Golden Starfrontlet --  Coeligena eos
Golden-bellied Starfrontlet  -- Coeligena bonapartei
Golden-breasted Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis mosquera
Golden-crowned Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon auriceps
Golden-tailed Sapphire -  Chrysuronia oenone
Gorgeted Puffleg  -- Eriocnemis isabellae
Gorgeted Sunangel  -- Heliangelus strophianus
Gorgeted Woodstar  -- Chaetocercus heliodor
Gould's Inca -  Coeligena inca
Gould's Jewelfront  -- Heliodoxa aurescens
Gray-bellied Comet  -- Taphrolesbia griseiventris
Gray-breasted Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus largipennis
Gray-chinned Hermit  -- Phaethornis griseogularis
Gray-tailed Mountain-gem  -- Lampornis cinereicauda
Great Sapphirewing  -- Pterophanes cyanopterus
Great-billed Hermit  -- Phaethornis malaris
Green Hermit  -- Phaethornis guy
Green Mango  -- Anthracothorax viridis
Green Thorntail  -- Discosura conversii
Green Violet-ear  -- Colibri thalassinus
Green-and-white Hummingbird  -- Leucippus viridicauda
Green-backed Firecrown  -- Sephanoides sephaniodes
Green-bellied Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia viridigaster
Green-breasted Mango --  Anthracothorax prevostii
Green-breasted Mountain-gem  -- Lampornis sybillae
Green-crowned Brilliant -- Heliodoxa jacula
Green-crowned Woodnymph  -- Thalurania fannyi
Green-fronted Hummingbird  -- Agyrtria viridifrons
Green-fronted Lancebill  -- Doryfera ludovicae
Green-headed Hillstar  -- Oreotrochilus stolzmanni
Greenish Puffleg  -- Haplophaedia aureliae
Green-tailed Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon alice
Green-tailed Goldenthroat  -- Polytmus theresiae
Green-tailed Trainbearer --  Lesbia nuna
Green-throated Carib  -- Eulampis holosericeus
Green-throated Mango  -- Anthracothorax viridigula
Green-throated Mountain-gem  -- Lampornis viridipallens
Hispaniolan Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon swainsonii
Hoary Puffleg  -- Haplophaedia lugens
Honduran Emerald  -- Polyerata luciae
Hooded Visorbearer  -- Augastes lumachella
Hook-billed Hermit --  Glaucis dohrnii
Horned Sungem  -- Heliactin bilophus
Hyacinth Visorbearer  -- Augastes scutatus
Indigo-capped Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia cyanifrons
Jamaican Mango  -- Anthracothorax mango
Juan Fernández Firecrown  -- Sephanoides fernandensis
Koepcke's Hermit  -- Phaethornis koepckeae
Lazuline Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus falcatus
Little Hermit  -- Phaethornis longuemareus
Little Sunangel  -- Heliangelus micrastur
Little Woodstar  -- Chaetocercus bombus
Loja Hummingbird  -- Amazilia alticola
Long-billed Hermit  -- Phaethornis longirostris
Long-billed Starthroat  -- Heliomaster longirostris
Long-tailed Hermit --  Phaethornis superciliosus
Long-tailed Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus excellens
Long-tailed Sylph  -- Aglaiocercus kingi
Long-tailed Woodnymph  -- Thalurania watertonii
Longuemare's Sunangel -  Heliangelus clarisse
Lucifer Hummingbird -  Calothorax lucifer
Magenta-throated Woodstar -- Calliphlox bryantae
Magnificent Hummingbird -- Eugenes fulgens
Mangrove Hummingbird --  Polyerata boucardi
Many-spotted Hummingbird  -- Leucippus hypostictus
Maranhao Hermit  -- Phaethornis (nattereri) maranhaoensis
Marvelous Spatuletail  -- Loddigesia mirabilis
Mexican Sheartail --  Doricha eliza
Mexican Woodnymph  -- Thalurania ridgwayi
Minute Hermit Phaethornis  -- idaliae
Mountain Avocetbill  -- Opisthoprora euryptera
Mountain Velvetbreast  -- Lafresnaya lafresnayi
Napo Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus villaviscensio
Narrow-tailed Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon stenurus
Neblina Metaltail  -- Metallura odomae
Needle-billed Hermit  -- Phaethornis philippii
Oasis Hummingbird  -- Rhodopis vesper
Olivaceous Thornbill  -- Chalcostigma olivaceum
Olive-spotted Hummingbird  -- Leucippus chlorocercus
Orange-throated Sunangel  -- Heliangelus mavors
Pale-bellied Hermit  -- Phaethornis anthophilus
Pale-tailed Barbthroat  -- Threnetes (niger) leucurus
Peacock Coquette  -- Lophornis pavoninus
Perija Metaltail  -- Metallura iracunda
Peruvian Piedtail  -- Phlogophilus harterti
Peruvian Sheartail  -- Thaumastura cora
Pink-throated Brilliant  -- Heliodoxa gularis
Plain-bellied Emerald  -- Agyrtria leucogaster
Plain-capped Starthroat -  Heliomaster constantii
Planalto Hermit -  Phaethornis pretrei
Plovercrest  -- Stephanoxis lalandi
Puerto Rican Emerald  -- Chlorostilbon maugaeus
Purple-backed Sunbeam  -- Aglaeactis aliciae
Purple-backed Thornbill --  Ramphomicron microrhynchum
Purple-bibbed Whitetip  -- Urosticte benjamini
Purple-chested Hummingbird  -- Polyerata rosenbergi
Purple-collared Woodstar -  Myrtis fanny
Purple-crowned Fairy  -- Heliothryx barroti
Purple-throated Carib  -- Eulampis jugularis
Purple-throated Mountain-gem  -- Lampornis calolaema
Purple-throated Sunangel  -- Heliangelus viola
Purple-throated Woodstar --  Calliphlox mitchellii
Racket-tailed Coquette  -- Discosura longicauda
Rainbow Starfrontlet --  Coeligena iris
Rainbow-bearded Thornbill  -- Chalcostigma herrani
Red-billed Streamertail  -- Trochilus polytmus
Reddish Hermit  -- Phaethornis ruber
Red-tailed Comet  -- Sappho sparganura
Rondonia Emerald  -- Agyrtria rondoniae
Royal Sunangel  -- Heliangelus regalis
Ruby-throated Hummingbird  -- Archilochus colubris
Ruby-topaz Hummingbird -  Chrysolampis mosquitus
Rufous Hummingbird  -- Selasphorus rufus
Rufous Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus rufus
Rufous-breasted Hermit  -- Glaucis hirsuta
Rufous-breasted Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus hyperythrus
Rufous-capped Thornbill  -- Chalcostigma ruficeps
Rufous-cheeked Hummingbird  -- Goethalsia bella
Rufous-crested Coquette  -- Lophornis delattrei
Rufous-shafted Woodstar  -- Chaetocercus jourdanii
Rufous-tailed Hummingbird  -- Amazilia tzacatl
Rufous-throated Sapphire  -- Hylocharis sapphirina
Rufous-vented Whitetip  -- Urosticte ruficrissa
Rufous-webbed Brilliant  -- Heliodoxa branickii
Santa Marta Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus phainopeplus
Santa Marta Woodstar  -- Chaetocercus astreans
Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird  -- Lepidopyga lilliae
Sapphire-spangled Emerald  -- Polyerata lactea
Sapphire-throated Hummingbird  -- Lepidopyga coeruleogularis
Sapphire-vented Puffleg -  Eriocnemis luciani
Saw-billed Hermit  -- Ramphodon naevius
Scaled Metaltail  -- Metallura aeneocauda
Scale-throated Hermit  -- Phaethornis eurynome
Scaly-breasted Hummingbird  -- Phaeochroa cuvierii
Scintillant Hummingbird  -- Selasphorus scintilla
Scissor-tailed Hummingbird  -- Hylonympha macrocerca
Shining Sunbeam  -- Aglaeactis cupripennis
Shining-green Hummingbird  -- Lepidopyga goudoti
Short-crested Coquette  -- Lophornis brachylophus
Short-tailed Emerald -  Chlorostilbon poortmani
Short-tailed Woodstar  -- Myrmia micrura
Slender Sheartail  -- Doricha enicura
Slender-tailed Woodstar  -- Microstilbon burmeisteri
Snowcap  -- Microchera albocoronata
Snowy-bellied Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia edward
Sombre Hummingbird  -- Campylopterus cirrochloris
Sooty Barbthroat  -- Threnetes niger
Sooty-capped Hermit  -- Phaethornis augusti
Spangled Coquette  -- Lophornis stictolophus
Sparkling Violet-ear -  Colibri coruscans
Sparkling-tailed Hummingbird -  Tilmatura dupontii
Speckled Hummingbird  -- Adelomyia melanogenys
Spot-throated Hummingbird  -- Leucippus taczanowskii
Steely-vented Hummingbird  -- Saucerottia saucerrottei
Straight-billed Hermit --  Phaethornis bourcieri
Streak-throated Hermit  -- Phaethornis rupurumii
Stripe-breasted Starthroat  -- Heliomaster squamosus
Stripe-tailed Hummingbird  -- Eupherusa eximia
Stripe-throated Hermit  -- Phaethornis striigularis
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird  -- Eupetomena macroura
Sword-billed Hummingbird  -- Ensifera ensifera
Tawny-bellied Hermit  -- Phaethornis syrmatophorus
Tepui Goldenthroat  -- Polytmus milleri
Tooth-billed Hummingbird  -- Androdon aequatorialis
Tourmaline Sunangel  -- Heliangelus exortis
Tufted Coquette  -- Lophornis ornatus
Tumbes Hummingbird  -- Leucippus baeri
Turquoise-throated  -- Puffleg Eriocnemis godini
Tyrian Metaltail --  Metallura tyrianthina
Velvet-browed Brilliant  -- Heliodoxa xanthogonys
Velvet-purple Coronet -  Boissonneaua jardini
Venezuelan Sylph  -- Aglaiocercus berlepschi
Veraguan Mango  -- Anthracothorax veraguensis
Versicolored Emerald  -- Agyrtria versicolor
Vervain Hummingbird --  Mellisuga minima
Violet Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus hemileucurus
Violet-bellied Hummingbird  -- Damophila julie
Violet-capped Hummingbird  -- Goldmania violiceps
Violet-capped Woodnymph  -- Thalurania glaucopis
Violet-chested Hummingbird  -- Sternoclyta cyanopectus
Violet-crowned Hummingbird  -- Agyrtria violiceps
Violet-crowned Woodnymph  -- Thalurania colombica
Violet-fronted Brilliant --  Heliodoxa leadbeateri
Violet-headed Hummingbird  -- Klais guimeti
Violet-tailed Sylph -  Aglaiocercus coelestis
Violet-throated Metaltail  -- Metallura baroni
Violet-throated Starfrontlet  -- Coeligena violifer
Viridian Metaltail  -- Metallura williami
Volcano Hummingbird  -- Selasphorus flammula
Wedge-billed Hummingbird  -- Augastes geoffroyi
Wedge-tailed Hillstar --  Oreotrochilus adela
Wedge-tailed Sabrewing  -- Campylopterus curvipennis
White-bearded Hermit  -- Phaethornis hispidus
White-bellied Emerald  -- Agyrtria candida
White-bellied Hummingbird  -- Leucippus chionogaster
White-bellied Mountain-gem  -- Lampornis hemileucus
White-bellied Woodstar --  Chaetocercus mulsant
White-browed Hermit  -- Phaethornis stuarti
White-chested Emerald  -- Agyrtria brevirostris
White-chinned Sapphire  -- Hylocharis cyanus
White-crested Coquette  -- Lophornis adorabilis
White-eared Hummingbird  -- Hylocharis leucotis
White-necked Jacobin --  Florisuga mellivora
White-sided Hillstar  -- Oreotrochilus leucopleurus
White-tailed Emerald  -- Elvira chionura
White-tailed Goldenthroat  -- Polytmus guainumbi
White-tailed Hillstar  -- Urochroa bougueri
White-tailed Hummingbird  -- Eupherusa poliocerca
White-tailed Sabrewing --  Campylopterus ensipennis
White-tailed Starfrontlet  -- Coeligena phalerata
White-throated Hummingbird  -- Leucochloris albicollis
White-throated Mountain-gem --  Lampornis castaneoventris
White-tipped Sicklebill  -- Eutoxeres aquila
White-tufted Sunbeam  -- Aglaeactis castelnaudii
White-vented Plumeleteer  -- Chalybura buffonii
White-vented Violet-ear  -- Colibri serrirostris
White-whiskered Hermit  -- Phaethornis yaruqui
Wine-throated Hummingbird  -- Atthis ellioti
Wire-crested Thorntail  -- Popelairia popelairii
Xantus's Hummingbird  -- Hylocharis xantusii

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