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All Things Snakes.
Information and pictures on Snakes.
Educational, Zoological, and Classification info.

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A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. A literary word for snake is serpent (a Middle English word which comes from Old French, and ultimately from serp - to creep); in modern usage this usually refers to a mythic or symbolic snake, and information about such creatures can be found under serpent (symbolism). This article deals mostly with the biology of snakes.

Evolution
The phylogeny of snakes is poorly known because snake skeletons are typically small and fragile, making fossilization unlikely. It has however been generally agreed, on the basis of morphology, that snakes descended from lizard-like ancestors. Recent research based on genetics and biochemistry confirms this; snakes form a venom clade with several extant lizard families, such as monitor lizards.

SnakesFossil evidence suggests that snakes directly evolved from burrowing lizards, either varanids or some other group. An early fossil snake, Najash rionegrina, was a two-legged burrowing animal with a sacrum, fully terrestrial. One extant analog of these putative ancestors is the earless monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo, although it also is semi-aquatic. As these ancestors became more subterranean, they lost their limbs and became more streamlined for burrowing. Features such as the transparent, fused eyelids (brille) and loss of external ears, according to this hypothesis, evolved to combat subterranean conditions (scratched corneas, dirt in the ears). According to this hypothesis, snakes re-emerged onto the surface of the land much as they are today. Other primitive snakes are known to have possessed hindlimbs but lacked a direct connection of the pelvic bones to the vertebrae, including Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis) which are slightly older than Najash'

Primitive groups among the modern snakes, pythons and boas, do have vestigial hind limbs, tiny, clawed digits known as anal spurs and used to grasp during mating. Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae are other examples where remnants of the pelvic girdle are still present, in Leptotyphlopidae sometimes as horny projections or not visible at all. The frontal limbs in all snakes are gone because of the evolution of the Hox genes in this area. The axial skeleton of the snakes' common ancestor had like most other tetrapods the familiar regional specializations consisting of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic) and caudal (tail) vertebrae. But the Hox gene expression in the axial skeleton responsible for the development of the thorax became dominant early in snake evolution. As a result, the vertebrae anterior to the hind limb buds (when present) all have the same thoracic-like identity (except from the atlas, axis and 1-3 neck vertebrae), meaning most of the snake's skeleton is actually made up of an extremely extended thorax. Ribs are found exclusively on the thoracic vertebrae. The neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number (only 2-10 lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are still present), while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae, although the tail is still long enough to be of good use in many species, and is modified in some aquatic and tree dwelling species. Because the front (thoracic) limbs in tetrapods appear in the area between the neck and the thorax, a location that is now almost absent in snakes, there is simply no longer any room left where they can develop.

The alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests that ancestors were related to mosasaurs — extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous — which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards. Under this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of snakes are thought to have evolved to combat marine conditions (corneal water loss through osmosis), while the external ears were lost through disuse in an aquatic environment, ultimately leading to an animal similar in appearance to sea snakes of today. In the Late Cretaceous, snakes re-colonized the land much like they are today. Fossil snake remains are known from early Late Cretaceous marine sediments, which is consistent with this hypothesis, particularly as they are older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Similar skull structure; reduced/absent limbs; and other anatomical features found in both mosasaurs and snakes lead to a positive cladistical correlation, though some features are also shared with varanids. Supposedly similar locomotion for both groups is also used as support for this hypothesis. Genetic studies have indicated that snakes are not especially related to monitor lizards, and (it has been claimed) therefore not to mosasaurs, the proposed ancestor in the aquatic scenario of their evolution. However, there is more evidence linking mosasaurs to snakes than to varanids. Fragmentary remains that have been found from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil records for these groups, which may eventually refute either hypothesis.

The great diversity of modern snakes appeared in the Paleocene, probably correlated with the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Digestion and diet Snakes
All snakes are carnivorous, eating small animals including lizards, other snakes, rodents and other small mammals, birds, eggs or insects. Some snakes have a venomous bite, which they use to kill their prey before eating it. Other snakes kill their prey by constriction. Still others swallow their prey whole and alive. Pareas iwesakii and other snail-eating Colubrids of subfamily Pareatinae have more teeth on the right side of their mouths than on the left, as the shells of their prey usually spiral clockwise. Most snakes are very easy to feed in captivity.

Snakes do not chew their food and have a very flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, and numerous other joints in their skull (see snake skull), allowing them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole, even if it is larger in diameter than the snake itself. It is a common misconception that snakes actually dislocate their lower jaw to consume large prey.
After eating, snakes become torpid while the process of digestion takes place. Digestion is an intensive activity, especially after the consumption of very large prey. In species that feed only sporadically, the entire intestine enters a reduced state between meals to conserve energy, and the digestive system is 'up-regulated' to full capacity within 48 hours of prey consumption. Being ectothermic or cold blooded, the surrounding temperature plays a large role in a snakes digestion. 30 degrees Celsius is the ideal temperature for snakes to digest their food. So much metabolic energy is involved in digestion that in Crotalus durissus, the Mexican rattlesnake, an increase of body temperature to as much as 14 degrees Celsius above the surrounding environment has been observed. Because of this, a snake disturbed after having eaten recently will often regurgitate its prey in order to be able to escape the perceived threat. However, when undisturbed, the digestive process is highly efficient, dissolving and absorbing everything but hair and claws, which are excreted along with uric acid waste. Snakes have been known to occasionally die from trying to swallow an animal that is too big. Snake digestive fluids are unable to digest most plant matter, which passes through the digestive system mostly untouched.

Snakes do not normally prey on people, but there are instances of small children being eaten by large constrictors in the jungle. While some particularly aggressive species exist, most will not attack humans unless startled or injured, preferring instead to avoid contact. Non-venomous snakes are usually not a threat to humans, with the exception of large constrictors. The bite of non-venomous snakes are harmless and usually hurt less then a bite from a mouse or other rodent. It is because their teeth are designed for grabbing and holding, rather than tearing or inflicting deep puncture. Venomous snakes will usually present more of a hazard to humans. There are a few different types of venom specific to different snakes. Some venoms destroy the nervous system while others coagulating your blood. If you are ever bitten by a snake and are unable to identify it, seek medical assistance AT ONCE. If, however, you are able to identify the snake, or can kill it without putting yourself in danger, do so and then bring it to the hospital so that they can identify it and know which anti-venom will be best suited to treat you.

As a general rule, snakes eat small vertebrates such as rodents, fish, lizards, birds and frogs. There are exceptions to this, such as the natal green snake, which eats insects. Snakes generally specialize in a few food types (for example, royal pythons will generally eat mice and gerbils in the wild). However, they do not need to hunt every day. A big meal will keep some snakes content for a long time. Anacondas and pythons can fast for a year after eating large prey.

Skin
The skin is covered in scales. Many people are surprised to find that snakeskin has a smooth, dry texture, instead of a slimy texture as might be expected. Some people are afraid to touch them because they confuse snakes with worms. Most snakes use specialized belly scales to travel, gripping surfaces. The body scales may be smooth, keeled, or granular. Their eyelids are transparent "spectacle" scales which remain permanently closed, called brille. They shed their skin periodically. Unlike other reptiles, this is done in one piece, like pulling off a sock, with the snake rubbing its nose against something rough, like a rock, for instance, creating a rip in the skin around the nose and the mouth until the skin is completely removed. The primary purpose of shedding is to grow; shedding also removes external parasites. This periodic renewal has led to the snake being a symbol of healing and medicine, as pictured in the Rod of Asclepius. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae without dissection. If there is not enough humidity in the air while snakes are shedding their skin, it can be very dangerous for the snake, because the dry skin does not shed. Skin that remains attached to the snake can harbor diseases and parasites. A tail tip that is not removed can constrict as the snake grows, cutting off the blood supply to the end of the tail causing it to drop off, while a retained spectacle can cause blindness in the affected eye.

Perception
SnakesWhile snake vision is unremarkable (generally being best in arboreal species and worst in burrowing species), it is able to detect movement. Some snakes, like the Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla), have binocular vision. In most snakes, the lens moves back and forth within the eyeball to focus. In addition to their eyes, some snakes (pit vipers, pythons, and some boas) have infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves between the nostril and eye which allow them to "see" the radiated heat.
A snake smells by using its forked tongue to collect airborne particles then passing them to the Jacobson's organ or the Vomeronasal organ in the mouth for examination. The fork in the tongue gives the snake a sort of directional sense of smell. The part of the body which is in direct contact with the surface of the ground is very sensitive to vibration, thus a snake is able to sense other animals approaching.

Internal organs
The right lung is very big or sometimes even absent, as snakes' tubular bodies require all of their organs to be long and thin. To accommodate them all, only one lung is functional. This lung contains a vascularized anterior portion and a posterior portion which does not function in gas exchange. This 'saccular lung' may be used to adjust buoyancy in some aquatic snakes and its function remains unknown in terrestrial species. Also, many organs that are paired, such as kidneys or reproductive organs, are staggered within the body, with one located ahead of the other. Snakes have no colenary bladder.

Locomotion
Snakes utilize a variety of methods of movement which allows them substantial mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in spite of their legless condition.
Lateral undulation is the sole mode of aquatic locomotion, and the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion. In this mode, the body of the snake alternately flexes to the left and right, resulting in a series of rearward-moving 'waves'. When swimming, the waves become larger as they move down the snake's body, and the wave travels backwards faster than the snake moves forwards. This contrasts with terrestrial lateral undulation, in which the wave speed is precisely the same as the snake speed, and as a result, every point on the snake's body follows the path of the point ahead of it, allowing snakes to move though very dense vegetation and small openings. In aquatic lateral undulation, snakes generate forward thrust by pushing their body against the water, resulting in the observed slip, while in terrestrial lateral undulation, thrust is generated by pushing against irregularities in the substrate such as pebbles and grass, resulting in 'path following'. In spite of overall similarities, studies show that the pattern of muscle activation is substantially different in aquatic vs terrestrial lateral undulation, which justifies calling them separate modes. All snakes can laterally undulate forwards (with backward-moving waves), but only sea snakes have been observed reversing the pattern, i.e. moving backwards via forward-traveling waves.

When the snake must move in an environment which lacks any irregulaties to push against, such as a slick mud flat or sand dune, colubroid snakes (colubrids, elapids, and vipers) usually employ sidewinding. Most common in short, stocky snakes, sidewinding is a modified form of lateral undulation in which all of the body segments oriented in one direction remain in contact with the ground, while the other segments are lifted up, resulting in a peculiar 'rolling' motion. Contrary to some sources, there is no evidence that sidewinding is associated with hot sand. Boas and pythons have never been observed sidewinding.

Both sidewinding and lateral undulation require substantial space, but some environments, such as tunnels, have very limited space. In tunnels, snakes use concertina locomotion. In this mode, the snake braces the posterior portion of its body against the tunnel wall while the front of the snake extends and straightens. The front portion then flexes and forms an anchor point, and the posterior is straightened and pulled forwards. This is a very slow, energetically expensive mode of locomotion.
The slowest mode of snake locomotion is rectilinear locomotion, which is also the only one in which the snake does not bend its body laterally. In this mode, the belly scales are lifted and pulled forwards before being placed down and the body pulled over them. Waves of movement and stasis pass posteriorly, resulting in a series of ripples in the skin. In spite of appearances, the ribs do not move in this mode of locomotion.
The movement of snakes in arboreal habitats has only recently been studied. Gliding snakes (Chrysopelea) of Southeast Asia launch themselves from branch tips, spread their ribs and laterally undulate as they glide between trees; these snakes are even capable of executing sharp turns in mid-air. While on the branches, snakes appear to use several modes of locomotion depending on species and bark texture, most of which are new to science.

Reproduction
A wide range of reproductive modes are used by snakes. All snakes employ internal fertilization, accomplished by means of paired, forked hemipenes, which are stored inverted in the male's tail. Most snakes lay eggs, and most of those species abandon them shortly after laying; however, some species are ovoviviparous and retain the eggs within their bodies until they are almost ready to hatch. Recently, it has been confirmed that several species of snake are fully viviparous, such as the green anaconda, nourishing their young through a placenta as well as a yolk sac, highly unusual among reptiles, or indeed anything else outside of placental mammals. Retention of eggs and live birth are commonly, but not exclusively, associated with cold environments, as the retention of the young within the female.

Snake venom

Snake venom is a highly modified saliva that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes. The gland which secretes the zootoxin is a modification of the parotid salivary gland of other vertebrates, and is usually situated on each side of the head below and behind the eye, invested in a muscular sheath. It is provided with large alveoli in which the venom is stored before being conveyed by a duct to the base of the channeled or tubular fang through which it is ejected. Snake venom is a combination of many different proteins and enzymes. Many of these proteins are harmless to humans, but some are toxins.
Note that snake venoms are generally not dangerous when ingested, and are therefore not technically poisons.

Snake venom is a mixture of toxins and different enzymes used for other purposes like increasing the prey's uptake of toxins.

  • Phosphodiesterases are used to interfere with the prey's cardiac system, mainly to lower the blood pressure.
  • Snake venom inhibits cholinesterase to make the prey lose control of its muscles.
  • Hyaluronidase increases tissue permeability to increase the rate that other enzymes are absorbed into the prey's tissues.
  • Amino acid oxidases and proteases are used for digestion. Amino acid oxidase also triggers some other enzymes and is responsible for the yellow color of the venom of some species.
  • Snake venom often contains ATPases which are used for breaking down ATP to disrupt the prey's energy fuel use.

A venomous snake is a snake that uses modified saliva, venom, delivered through fangs in its mouth, to immobilize or kill its prey. Venomous snakes include several families of snakes and do not constitute a formal classification group used in taxonomy. The term poisonous snake is mostly incorrect - poison is inhaled or ingested whereas venom is injected. (There are, however, two examples - Rhabdophis sequesters toxins from the toads it eats then secretes them from nuchal glands to ward off predators, and a small population of garter snakes in Oregon retains enough toxin in their liver from the newts they eat to be effectively poisonous to local small predators such as crows and foxes.) Snake venom can contain many different active agents, and can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the circulatory system), cytotoxins, bungarotoxins and many other toxins that affect the body in different ways.

Venomous snakes that use hemotoxins usually have the fangs that secrete the venom in the front of their mouths, making it easier for them to inject the venom into their victims. Some snakes that use neurotoxins, such as the mildly venomous mangrove snake, may have their fangs located in the back of their mouths, with the fangs curled backwards. This makes it both difficult for the snake to use its venom and for scientists to milk them.

It has recently been suggested that all snakes are in fact venomous to some degree (see Toxicofera for more information). Snakes all evolved from a common lizard ancestor that was venomous, from which venomous lizards like the gila monster and beaded lizard also derived. The research suggests that snakes all have venom glands, even species thought totally harmless such as the Corn Snake, commonly kept as a pet. What differentiates 'venomous' from 'non-venomous' is the evolution of a venom delivery system, the most advanced being that of vipers, with fangs that are hinged to prevent self envenomation, curling out only when the snake strikes.

Venomous snakes are generally classified in three taxonomic families:

  • Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian copperheads, sea snakes, and coral snakes.
  • Viperids - vipers, rattlesnakes, copperheads/cottonmouths, adders and bushmasters.
  • Colubrids - boomslangs, tree snakes, vine snakes, mangrove snakes, and many others, though not all colubrids are venomous.

Snake bite
A snakebite, or snake bite, is a bite inflicted by a snake. Snakes often bite their prey when feeding, but occasionally, they bite humans. People can avoid and treat snakebites by knowing their etiology, along with prevention tips, and first-aid and hospital treatment.

Documented deaths resulting from snake bites are uncommon (about 1/1000 in most areas of the world). Only about 725 species of snakes are venomous (with only about 250 that are able to kill a human), and among the 11,000 Americans bitten by venomous snakes every six months, fewer than eight die.
Most snakebites are caused by non-venomous snakes. Of the roughly 3,000 known species of snake found worldwide, only 15 percent are considered dangerous to humans. Snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica. The most diverse and widely distributed snake family, the Colubrids, has only a few members which are harmful to humans. Of the 120 known indigenous snake species in North America, only 20 are venomous to human beings, all belonging to the families Viperidae and Elapidae. However, every state except Maine, Alaska, and Hawaii is home to at least one of 20 venomous snake species.

Since the act of delivering venom is completely voluntary, all venomous snakes are capable of biting without injecting venom into their victim. Such snakes will often deliver such a "dry bite" (about 50% of the time) rather than waste their venom on a creature too large for them to eat. Some dry bites may also be the result of imprecise timing on the snake's part, as venom may be prematurely released before the fangs have penetrated the victim’s flesh. Even without venom, some snakes, particularly large constrictors such as those belonging to the Boidae and Pythonidae families, can deliver damaging bites; large specimens often causing severe lacerations as the victim or the snake itself pulls away, causing the flesh to be torn by the needle-sharp recurved teeth embedded in the victim. While not normally as life-threatening as a bite from a venomous species, the bite can be at least temporarily debilitating and as mentioned above, could lead to dangerous infections if improperly dealt with.
Since reporting is not mandatory, many snakebites go unreported. Consequently, no accurate study has ever been conducted to determine the frequency of snakebites on the international level. However, some estimates put the number at 2.5 million bites, resulting in perhaps 125,000 deaths. Worldwide, snakebites occur most frequently in the summer season when snakes are active and humans are outdoors. Agricultural and tropical regions report more snakebites than anywhere else. Victims are typically male and between 17 and 27 years of age.

A late 1950s study estimated that 45,000 snakebites occur each year in the United States. Despite this large number, only 7,000 to 8,000 of those snakebites are actually caused by venomous snakes, resulting in an average of 10 deaths. This puts the chance of survival at roughly 499 out of 500. The majority of bites in the United States occur in the southwestern part of the country, in part because rattlesnake populations in the eastern states are much lower.
Most snakebite related deaths in the United States are attributed to eastern and western diamondback rattlesnake bites. Children and the elderly are most likely to die (Gold & Wingert 1994). The state of North Carolina has the highest frequency of reported snakebites, averaging approximately 19 bites per 100,000 persons. The national average is roughly 4 bites per 100,000 persons.

Snake charmers
In some parts of the world, especially in India and Pakistan, snake charming is a roadside show performed by a charmer. In this, the snake charmer carries a basket that contains a snake which he seemingly charms by playing tunes from his flute-like musical instrument, to which the snake responds. Snakes lack external ears, though have internal ears. However, snakes show no tendency to be influenced by music.
Researchers have pointed out that many of these snake charmers are good sleight-of-hand artists. The snake moves corresponding to the flute movement and the vibrations from the tapping of the charmer's foot which is not noticed by the public. They rarely catch their snakes and the snakes are either nonvenomous or defanged cobras. Sometimes these people exploit the fear of snakes by releasing snakes into the neighbourhood and then offering to rid the residence of snakes. Other snake charmers also have a snake and mongoose show, where both the animals have a mock fight; however, this is not very common, as the snakes, as well as the mongooses, may be seriously injured or killed.

Snake charming as a profession is now discouraged in India as a contribution to forest and snake conservation. In fact in some places in India snake charming is banned by law.
Despite the existence of snake charmers, there have also been professional snake catchers or wranglers. Modern day snake trapping involves a herpetologist using a long stick with a "V" shaped end. Some like Steve Irwin, Bill Haast, Joel La Rocque, and Jeff Corwin prefer to catch them using bare hands.

Consumption of snakes
In some cultures, the consumption of snakes is acceptable, or even considered a delicacy, prized for its alleged pharmaceutical effect of warming the heart. Western cultures document the consumption of snakes under extreme circumstances of hunger. However, human consumption of snake meat, especially when eaten raw, may lead to dangerous parasitic infections. Cooked rattlesnake meat is an exception, which is commonly consumed in the Western United States. In Asian countries, drinking the blood of snakes, particularly the cobra, is believed to increase sexual virility. The blood is drained while the cobra is still alive when possible, and is usually mixed with some form of liquor to improve the taste.
In some Asian countries, the use of snakes in alcohol is also accepted. In such cases, the body of a snake or several snakes is left to steep in a jar or container of liquor. It is claimed that this makes the liquor stronger (as well as more expensive). One example of this is the Habu snake sometimes placed in the Okinawan liquor Awamori.

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Sauropsida
Subclass: Diapsidia
Infraclass: Lepidosauromorphia
Superorder: Lepidosaua
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes Linnaeus, 1758

Infraorders and Families

  • Alethinophidia - Nopcsa, 1923
    • Acrochordidae- Bonaparte, 1831
    • Aniliidae - Stejneger, 1907
    • Anomochilidae - Cundall, Wallach & Rossman, 1993
    • Atractaspididae - Günther, 1858
    • Boidae - Gray, 1825
    • Bolyeriidae - Hoffstetter, 1946
    • Colubridae - Oppel, 1811
    • Cylindrophiidae - Fitzinger, 1843
    • Elapidae - F. Boie, 1827
    • Loxocemidae - Cope, 1861
    • Pythonidae - Fitzinger, 1826
    • Tropidophiidae - Brongersma, 1951
    • Uropeltidae - Müller, 1832
    • Viperidae - Oppel, 1811
    • Xenopeltidae - Bonaparte, 1845
  • Scolecophidia - Cope, 1864
    • Anomalepididae - Taylor, 1939
    • Leptotyphlopidae - Stejneger, 1892
    • Typhlopidae - Merrem, 1820

 

List of snakes by common name
This is a list of extant snakes, given by their common names. Note that the snakes are grouped by name, and in some cases the grouping may have no scientific basis.

  • A
    • adder
      • berg adder
      • common adder
      • deaf adder (same as death adder)
      • death adder
      • Desert Death Adder
      • horned adder
      • long-nosed adder
      • many-horned adder
      • mountain adder
      • Mud adder
      • Namaqua dwarf adder
      • Night Adder
      • Peringuey's adder
      • puff adder
    • African puff adder
      • rhombic night adder
      • sand adder
    • dwarf sand adder
    • Namib dwarf sand adder
      • sea adder
      • water adder
    • Aesculapian Snake
    • anaconda
      • Bolivian Anaconda
      • Deschauense's Anaconda
      • green anaconda
      • yellow anaconda
    • Arafura File Snake
    • asp
      • European asp
  • B
    • bandy-bandy
    • barba amarilla
    • beaked snake
      • African beaked snake
      • Dwarf Beaked Snake
      • Rufous beaked snake
    • bird snake
    • black-headed snake
      • Southwestern Blackhead Snake
    • black rat snake
    • black snake
      • Red-bellied Black Snake
    • blind snake
      • Brahminy Blind Snake
      • Texas Blind Snake
      • Western blind snake
    • boa
      • Abaco Island Boa
      • Amazon tree boa
      • boa constrictor
      • Cuban boa
      • Dumeril's Boa
      • dwarf boa
      • Emerald tree boa
      • Hogg Island Boa
      • Jamaican Boa
      • Madagascar Ground Boa
      • Madagascar Tree Boa
      • Puerto Rican Boa
      • Rainbow boa
      • Red-tailed Boa
      • Rosy boa
      • Rubber Boa
      • Sand boa
      • Tree boa
    • boiga
    • boomslang
    • brown snake
      • Eastern brown snake
    • Bull Snake
    • bushmaster
  • C
    • canebrake
    • cantil
    • cascabel
    • cascavel
    • cat-eyed snake
      • Banded Cat-eyed Snake
      • green cat-eyed snake
    • cat snake
      • Andaman Cat Snake
      • Beddome's Cat Snake
      • Dog-toothed Cat Snake
      • Forsten's Cat Snake
      • Gold-ringed Cat Snake
      • Gray Cat Snake
      • Many-spotted Cat Snake
      • Nicobar Cat Snake
      • Sri Lanka Cat Snake
      • Tawny Cat Snake
    • chicken snake
    • coachwhip snake
    • cobra
      • black-necked cobra
      • Cape Cobra
      • Chinese cobra
      • cobra de capello
      • common cobra
      • Eastern water cobra
      • Egyptian cobra
      • False Cobra
      • False Water Cobra
      • forest cobra
      • gold's tree cobra
      • Indian cobra
      • king cobra
      • monocled cobra
      • Mozambique Spitting Cobra
      • Philippine cobra
      • Red spitting cobra
      • Rinkhals cobra
      • shield-nosed cobra
      • spitting cobra
      • white-lipped cobra
      • yellow cobra
    • Collett's Snake
    • colubrine
    • congo snake
    • copperhead
      • American copperhead
      • Australian copperhead
    • coral snake
      • Arizona coral snake
      • Beddome's coral snake
      • Brazilian coral snake
      • Cape coral snake
      • Eastern coral snake
      • false coral snake
      • Harlequin coral snake
      • High Woods Coral Snake
      • Malayan long-glanded coral snake
      • Western coral snake
    • corn snake
      • South Eastern corn snake
    • cottonmouth
    • crowned snake
    • Cuban Wood Snake
  • D
    • diamondback
    • Dice snake
  • E
    • Eastern hognose snake
    • Egg-eater
      • Indian Egg-eater
      • eye-lash viper
      • eastern coral snake
  • F
    • fer-de-lance
    • fierce snake
    • fishing snake
    • flying snake
      • Gold's Tree Snake
      • Indian Flying Snake
      • Moluccan Flying Snake
      • ornate flying snake
      • paradise flying snake
    • Fox Snake
      • Eastern fox snake
    • Forest Flame Snake
  • G
    • garter snake
      • Checkered Garter Snake
      • San Francisco garter snake
      • Texas Garter Snake
    • Glossy snake
    • gopher snake
      • Cape gopher snake
    • grass snake
    • green snake
      • Rough Green Snake
      • Smooth Green Snake
    • ground snake
      • Common Ground Snake
      • Three-lined Ground Snake
      • Western Ground Snake
  • H
    • habu
      • himehabu
      • Okinawan habu
      • Sakishima habu
      • Tokarahabu
    • harlequin snake
      • Elaps harlequin snake
    • herald snake
    • hognose snake
      • Eastern Hognose Snake
      • Giant Malagasy Hognose Snake
      • Plains hognose snake
      • Western hognose snake
    • hoop snake
    • hundred pacer
  • I
  • indigo snake
  • K
    • keelback
      • Andrea's keelback
      • Asian keelback
      • Assam Keelback
      • Black-striped keelback
      • Buff Striped Keelback
      • Burmese keelback
      • common keelback
      • Hill Keelback
      • Himalayan Keelback
      • Khasi Hills Keelback
      • Modest Keelback
      • Nicobar Island Keelback
      • Nilgiri Keelback
      • Orange-collared keelback
      • Red-necked keelback
      • Sikkim Keelback
      • Speckle-bellied keelback
      • Tiger keelback
      • Wall's Keelback
      • White-Lipped Keelback
      • Wynaad Keelback
      • Yunnan Keelback
    • King Brown
    • king snake
      • California Kingsnake
      • Desert Kingsnake
      • Grey-Banded Kingsnake
      • North Eastern king snake
      • Prairie Kingsnake
      • Scarlet Kingsnake
      • Speckled Kingsnake
    • krait
      • banded krait
      • blue krait
      • many-banded krait
    • kufah
  • L
    • Large Shield Snake
    • lancehead
      • Common lancehead
    • Lora
      • Grey Lora
    • lyre snake
      • Central American lyre snake
      • Texas Lyre Snake
      • Western Lyre Snake
  • M
    • Machete Savane
    • mamba
      • black mamba
      • Eastern green mamba
      • green mamba
      • Western green mamba
    • mamushi
    • mangrove snake
    • Milk Snake
    • Moccasin snake
    • Montpellier snake
    • mud snake
      • Eastern mud snake
      • Western mud snake
    • mussurana
  • N
    • night snake
      • Cat-eyed Night Snake
      • Texas Night Snake
      • Nichell Snake
  • P
    • parrot snake
      • Mexican parrot snake
    • Patchnose snake
    • Perrotet's Shieldtail snake
    • Pine snake
    • Pipe snake
      • Asian pipe snake
      • Dwarf pipe snake
      • Red-tailed Pipe Snake
    • python
      • African rock python
      • Amethystine python
      • Angolan python
      • Australian Scrub python
      • Ball python
      • Bismarck ringed python
      • Black Headed Python
      • Blood python
      • Boelen python
      • Borneo Short-tailed python
      • Bredl's python
      • Brown Water python
      • Burmese Python
      • Calabar Python
      • carpet python
    • Centralian carpet python
    • Coastal carpet python
    • Inland carpet python
    • Jungle carpet python
    • New Guinea carpet python
    • Northwestern carpet python
    • Southwestern carpet python
      • Children's python
      • Dauan Island Water python
      • Desert Woma python
      • Diamond python
      • Flinders python
      • Green Tree Python
      • Halmahera python
      • Indian Python
      • Indonesian Water python
      • Macklot's python
      • Mollucan python
      • Oenpelli python
      • Olive python
      • Papuan python
      • Pygmy python
      • Red Blood python
      • Reticulated python
    • Kayaudi Dwarf Reticulated python
    • Selayer reticulated python
      • Rough-scaled python
      • Royal python
      • Savu python
      • Spotted python
      • Stimson's python
      • Sumatran Short-tailed python
      • Tanimbar python
      • Timor python
      • Wetar Island python
      • white-lipped python
    • Brown white-lipped python
    • Northern white-lipped python
    • Southern white-lipped python
      • Woma Python
    • Western Woma python
  • Q
    • Queen snake
  • R
    • racer
      • Bimini racer
      • Buttermilk Racer
      • eastern racer
      • Eastern Yellowbelly Racer
      • Mexican Racer
      • Southern Black Racer
      • Tan Racer
      • West Indian racer
    • rat snake
      • Baird's rat snake
      • Beauty rat snake
      • Great Plains Rat Snake
      • Green rat snake
      • Japanese forest rat snake
      • Japanese Rat Snake
      • King rat snake
      • Mandarin rat snake
      • Persian rat snake
      • Twin-spotted rat snake
      • Yellow-striped rat snake
    • rattlesnake
      • Arizona black rattlesnake
      • Aruba rattlesnake
      • Chihuahuan ridge-nosed rattlesnake
      • Coronado Island rattlesnake
      • Durango rock rattlesnake
      • dusky pigmy rattlesnake
      • Eastern diamondback rattlesnake
      • Grand Canyon rattlesnake
      • Great Basin rattlesnake
      • hopi rattlesnake
      • lance-headed rattlesnake
      • long-tailed rattlesnake
      • Massasauga rattlesnake
      • Mexican green rattlesnake
      • Mexican west coast rattlesnake
      • midget faded rattlesnake
      • Mojave rattlesnake
      • northern black-tailed rattlesnake
      • Oaxacan small-headed rattlesnake
      • rattler
      • red diamond rattlesnake
      • Southern Pacific rattlesnake
      • Southwestern speckled rattlesnake
      • tancitaran dusky rattlesnake
      • tiger rattlesnake
      • timber rattlesnake
      • tropical rattlesnake
      • twin-spotted rattlesnake
      • Uracoan rattlesnake
      • Western diamondback rattlesnake
    • Ribbon snake
    • rinkhals
    • river jack
  • S
    • sea snake
      • annulated sea snake
      • beaked sea snake
      • Dubois's sea snake
      • Hardwicke's sea snake
      • Hook Nosed Sea Snake
      • olive sea snake
      • plagic sea snake
      • Stoke's sea snake
      • yellow-banded sea snake
      • yellow-bellied sea snake
      • yellow-lipped sea snake
    • Shield-tailed snake
    • sidewinder
      • Colorado desert sidewinder
      • Mojave desert sidewinder
      • Sonoran sidewinder
    • smooth snake
      • Brazilian smooth snake
    • sonoran
    • Stiletto Snake
    • Striped snake
      • Japanese striped snake
    • sunbeam snake
  • T
    • taipan
    • tentacled snake
    • tic polonga
    • tiger snake
      • Chappell Island Tiger Snake
      • Common Tiger Snake
      • Down's Tiger Snake
      • Eastern Tiger Snake
      • King Island Tiger Snake
      • Krefft's Tiger Snake
      • Penisula Tiger Snake
      • Tasmanian Tiger Snake
      • Western Tiger Snake
    • tigre snake
    • tree snake
      • Blanding's tree snake
      • blunt-headed tree snake
      • Brown tree snake
      • long-nosed tree snake
      • Many-banded Tree Snake
      • Northern tree snake
    • Trinket snake
      • Black-banded trinket snake
    • twig snake
      • African twig snake
  • U
    • urutu
  • V
    • vine snake
      • Mexican vine snake
    • viper
      • asp viper
      • bamboo viper
      • bluntnose viper
      • burrowing viper
      • bush viper
        • Great Lakes bush viper
        • hairy bush viper
        • Nitsche's bush viper
        • rough-scaled bush viper
        • spiny bush viper
      • carpet viper
      • Crossed Viper
      • cyclades blunt-nosed viper
      • eyelash viper
      • Fea's viper
      • fifty pacer
      • Gaboon viper
      • hognosed viper
      • horned desert viper
      • horned viper
      • jumping viper
      • Kaznakov's viper
      • leaf-nosed viper
      • leaf viper
      • levant viper
      • long-nosed viper
      • McMahon's viper
      • mole viper
      • nose-horned viper
      • Palestinian viper
      • pallas' viper
      • palm viper
        • Amazonian palm viper
        • green palm viper
        • Guatemalan palm viper
        • Honduran palm viper
        • Siamese palm viper
        • yellow-lined palm viper
      • pit viper
        • Barbour's pit viper
        • black-tailed horned pit viper
        • eyelash pit viper
        • Godman's pit viper
        • green tree pit viper
        • habu pit viper
        • Kanburian pit viper
        • Malayan pit viper
        • mangrove pit viper
        • Sri Lankan pit viper
        • temple pit viper
        • tiger pit viper
        • undulated pit viper
        • Wagler's pit viper
        • Wirot's pit viper
      • Portuguese viper
      • rhinoceros viper
      • river jack
      • Russell's viper
      • sand viper
      • saw-scaled viper
      • Schlegel's viper
      • sedge viper
      • sharp-nosed viper
      • snorkel viper
      • temple viper
      • tree viper
        • Chinese tree viper
        • Guatemalan tree viper
        • Indian tree viper
        • Pope's tree viper
        • rough-scaled tree viper
        • Rungwe tree viper
        • Sumatran tree viper
        • White-lipped tree viper
      • Ursini's viper
      • Western hog-nosed viper
  • W
    • wart snake
    • water moccasin
    • water snake
      • Bocourt's water snake
      • Northern Water Snake
    • whip snake
      • long-nosed whip snake
    • wolf snake
      • African wolf snake
      • barred wolf snake
    • worm snake
      • Common Worm Snake
    • wutu
  • Y
    • Yarara

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