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All Things Whale.
Information and pictures on Whales.
Educational, Zoological, and Classification info.

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The term whale can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. The last definition is the one followed here. Whales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins (i.e. members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidea) nor porpoises. This can lead to some confusion because Orcas ("Killer Whales") and Pilot whales have "whale" in their name, but they are dolphins for the purpose of classification.

Origins and taxonomyWhales
All cetaceans, including whales, dolphins and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals of the Artiodactyl order (even-toed ungulate animals). Both cetaceans and artiodactyl are now classified under the super-order Cetartiodactyla which includes both whales and hippos. In fact, whales are the closest living relatives of hippos; they evolved from a common ancestor at around 54 million years ago. Whales entered the water roughly 50 million years ago.

Cetaceans are divided into two suborders:

  • The baleen whales are characterized by baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which they use to filter plankton from the water. They are the largest species of whale.
  • The toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, or both. An outstanding ability of this group is to sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.

Anatomy
Like all mammals, whales breathe air into lungs, are warm-blooded, feed their young milk from mammary glands, and have some (although very little) hair.

The body is fusiform, resembling the streamlined form of a fish. The forelimbs, also called flippers, are paddle-shaped. The end of the tail holds the fluke, or tail fins, which provide propulsion by vertical movement. Although whales generally do not possess hind limbs, some whales (such as sperm whales and baleen whales) sometimes have rudimentary hind limbs; some even with feet and digits. Most species of whale bear a fin on their backs known as a dorsal fin.

Beneath the skin lies a layer of fat, the blubber. It serves as an energy reservoir and also as insulation. Whales have a four-chambered heart. The neck vertebrae are fused in most whales, which provides stability during swimming at the expense of flexibility. They have a pelvis bone, which is a vestigial structure.

Whales breathe through blowholes, located on the top of the head so the animal Whalescan remain submerged. Baleen whales have two; toothed whales have one. The shapes of whales' spouts when exhaling after a dive, when seen from the right angle, differ between species. Whales have a unique respiratory system that lets them stay underwater for long periods of time without taking in oxygen. Some whales, such as the Sperm Whale, can stay underwater for up to two hours holding a single breath. The Blue Whale is the largest known mammal that has ever lived, and the largest living animal, at up to 35 m (105ft) long and 150 tons.

Whales generally live for 40-200 years, depending on their species, but it is rare to find one that lives over a century. Recently a fragment of a lance used by commercial whalers in the 19th century has been found in a bowhead whale caught off Alaska. The fragment showed the whale is between 115 and 130 years old. "No other finding has been this precise," said John Bockstoce, an adjunct curator of the New Bedford Whaling Museum.

Whale flukes often can be used as identifying markings, as is the case for humpback whales. This is the method by which the publicized errant Humphrey the whale was identified in three separate sightings.

Anatomy of the ear
While there are direct similarities between the ears of whales and humans, whales’ ears have specific adaptations to their underwater environment. In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance matcher between the outside air’s low-impedance and the cochlear fluid’s high-impedance. In aquatic mammals such as whales, however, there is no great difference between the outer and inner environments. Instead of sound passing through outer ear to middle ear, whales receive sound through their lower jaw, where it passes through a low-impedance, fat-filled cavity.

Behavior
Whales are widely classed as predators, but their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large fish. Males are called bulls; females, cows. The young are called calves.

Because of their environment (and unlike many animals), whales are conscious breathers: they decide when to breathe. All mammals sleep, including whales, but they cannot afford to fall into an unconscious state for too long, since they need to be conscious in order to breathe. It is thought that only one hemisphere of their brains sleeps at a time, so that whales are never completely asleep, but still get the rest they need. Whales are thought to sleep around 8 hours a day.

Whales also communicate with each other using lyrical sounds. Being so large and powerful, these sounds are also extremely loud (depending on the species); sperm whales have only been heard making clicks, as all toothed whales (Odontoceti) use echolocation and can be heard for many miles. They have been known to generate about 20,000 acoustic watts of sound at 163 decibels.

Females give birth to a single calf. Nursing time is long (more than one year in many species), which is associated with a strong bond between mother and young. In most whales reproductive maturity occurs late, typically at seven to ten years. This mode of reproduction spawns few offspring, but provides each with a high probability of survival in the wild.

The male genitals are retracted into cavities of the body during swimming, so as to be streamlined and reduce drag. Most whales do not maintain fixed partnerships during mating; in many species the females have several mates each season. At birth the newborn is delivered tail-first, so the risk of drowning is minimized. Whale mothers nurse the young by actively squirting milk into their mouths a milk that according to German naturalist Dieffenbach, bears great similarities to cow's milk, except with a much higher concentration of fat. Biologists compare the consistency of whale milk to cottage cheese; it must be thick, or else it will dissipate into the surrounding water.

WhalingWhales
Some species of large whales are endangered as a result of large-scale whaling during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For centuries large whales have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris (a perfume ingredient from the intestine of sperm whales). By the middle of the 20th century, whaling left many populations severely depleted.

The International Whaling Commission introduced a six year moratorium on all commercial whaling in 1986, which has been extended to the present day. For various reasons some exceptions to this moratorium exist; current whaling nations are Norway, Iceland and Japan and the aboriginal communities of Siberia, Alaska and northern Canada. For details, see whaling.

Several species of small whales are caught as bycatch in fisheries for other species. In the tuna fishery in the Eastern Tropical Pacific thousands of dolphins were drowned in purse-seine nets, until measures to prevent this were introduced. Fishing gear and deployment modifications, and eco-labelling (dolphin-safe or dolphin-friendly brands of canned tuna), have contributed to a reduction in the mortality of dolphins by tuna fishing vessels in recent years. In many countries, small whales are still hunted for food, oil, meat or bait.

Sonar interference
Environmentalists have long argued that some cetaceans, including whales, are endangered by sonar used by advanced navies. In 2003 British and Spanish scientists suggested in Nature that sonar is connected to whale beachings and to signs that the beached whales have experienced decompression sickness. Mass whale beaching occur in many species, mostly beaked whales that use echolocation systems for deep diving. The frequency and size of beachings around the world, recorded over the last 1,000 years in religious tracts and more recently in scientific surveys, has been used to estimate the changing population size of various whale species by assuming that the proportion of the total whale population beaching in any one year is constant.

Despite the concerns raised about sonar which may invalidate this assumption, this population estimate technique is still popular today. Researchers in the area (Talpalar & Grossman, 2005) support the view that it is the combination of the high pressure environment of deep-diving with the disturbing effect of the sonar which causes decompression sickness and stranding of whales. Thus, an exaggerated startle response occurring during deep diving may alter orientation cues and produce rapid ascent.

Following public concern, the U.S. Defense department has been ordered by the U.S. judiciary to strictly limit use of its Low Frequency Active Sonar during peacetime. Attempts by the UK-based Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society to obtain a public inquiry into the possible dangers of the Royal Navy's equivalent (the "2087" sonar launched in December 2004) have so far failed. The European Parliament on the other hand has requested that EU members refrain from using the powerful sonar system until an environmental impact study has been carried out.

Other environmental disturbances
Conservationists are concerned that seismic testing used for oil and gas exploration may also damage the hearing and echolocation capabilities of whales. They also suggest that disturbances in magnetic fields caused by the testing may also be responsible for beaching.

Some scientists and environmentalists suggest that some whale species are also endangered due to a number of other human activities such as the unregulated use of fishing gear, that often catch anything that swims into them, collisions with ships, toxins and the combination of toxins POPs among other threats.

Whales are also threatened by climate change and global warming. As the Antarctic Ocean warms, krill populations, that are the main food source of some species of whales, reduce dramatically, being replaced by jelly like salps.

List of whale species
Whales are from the order Cetacea, which also includes the dolphins and porpoises. The order contains two sub-orders, Mysticeti and Odontoceti, over which the whale species are spread. New discoveries of species has increased recently although due to the nature of whales studying them prevents easily relating the species to another, this has led to several publications stating different facts.

Baleen whales
The baleen whales form the Mysticeti, one of two suborders of the Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises). Baleen whales are characterized by having baleen plates for filtering food from water, rather than having teeth. Living Mysticeti species have teeth only during the embryonal phase. Fossil Mysticeti had teeth before baleen evolved. In baleen whales, unlike with most other marine mammals, the female is larger than the male, and the largest animal ever to have lived is found in this group.

The suborder contains four families and fourteen fully known species. Balaenoptera omurai is a recent discovery and little is known of it, no common name has been assigned to it yet.

The scientific name derives from the Greek word mystax, which means "moustache".

  • Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus
  • Atlantic Northern Right Whale, Eubalaena glacialis
  • Pacific Northern Right Whale, Eubalaena japonica
  • Southern Right Whale, Eubalaena australis
  • Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus
  • Sei Whale, Balaenoptera borealis
  • Bryde's Whale, Balaenoptera brydei
  • Pygmy Bryde's Whale, (Eden's Whale) Balaenoptera edeni
  • Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus
  • Northern Minke Whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata
  • Southern Minke Whale, (Antarctic Minke Whale) Balaenoptera bonaerensis
  • Balaenoptera omurai, discovery announced November 2003. No common name yet in usage
  • Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
  • Gray Whale, Eschrichtius robustus
  • Pygmy Right Whale, Caperea marginata

Toothed whales
The toothed whales form the Odontoceti, the second sub-order of the cetaceans. As the name suggests, the suborder is characterized by having teeth, rather than baleen. Toothed whales are active hunters, feeding on fish, squid, and in some cases marine mammals. As well as the following whales, the sub-order also contains the porpoises and dolphins. Toothed whales have a single blowhole on the top of the head, which was formed from one of the nostrils becoming dominant over the other, rather than from them both fusing together.

  • Sperm Whale, Physeter macrocephalus
  • Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima
  • Pygmy Sperm Whale, Kogia breviceps
  • Cuvier's Beaked Whale, Ziphius cavirostris
  • Arnoux's Beaked Whale, Berardius arnuxii
  • Baird's Beaked Whale (North Pacific Bottlenose Whale), Berardius bairdii
  • Shepherd's Beaked Whale (Tasman Beaked Whale), Tasmacetus shepherdi
  • Longman's Beaked Whale (Indo-Pacific Beaked Whale), Indopacetus pacificus
  • Northern Bottlenose Whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus
  • Southern Bottlenose Whale, Hyperoodon planifrons
  • Hector's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon hectori
  • True's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon mirus
  • Gervais' Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon europaeus
  • Sowerby's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon bidens
  • Gray's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon grayi
  • Pygmy Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon peruvianus
  • Andrews' Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon bowdoini
  • Bahamonde's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon bahamondi
  • Hubbs' Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
  • Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon ginkgodens
  • Stejneger's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon stejnegeri
  • Layard's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon layardii
  • Blainville's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon densirostris
  • Perrin's Beaked Whale, Mesoplodon perrini
  • Narwhal, Monodon monoceros
  • Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

Extinct whales
Another group of whales was the Archaeoceti, which is now extinct, these were believed to be some of the earliest whales which gave rise to modern whales. Mainly only genera are known and no specific species. Not all extinct whales are from the Archaeoceti group.

  • Pakicetus
  • Ambulocetus
  • Basilosaurus
  • Squalodon
  • Mammalodon colliveri
  • Janjucetus hunderi - thought to have been an early baleen whale, with remnants of teeth
  • Harrison's Whale, Eobalaenoptera harrisoni - fossil species first discovered June 2004

Unconfirmed species
These unconfirmed species of whales can also be considered cryptids.

  • Giglioli's Whale
  • High-finned sperm whale
  • Bloop (an underwater sound detected by the NOAA, possibly from a whale)

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Subclass: Eutheria

Order: Cetacea
 

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